by Norio Hayakawa:
Polite form of Japanese verbs:
The verb “to be” = desu (is, am, are)
Watashi no tomodachi wa Supeingo no sensei desu.
(My friend is a Spanish language teacher.)
The negative form is dewa arimasen (is not, am not, are not)
Mary Smith-san wa bengoshi dewa arimasen.
(Mary Smith is not a lawyer).
The past tense is deshita (was, were)
VOCABULARY: basho = place mukashi = long time ago eigakan = movie theater
Kono basho wa mukashi eigakan deshita.
(This place was a movie theater long time ago)
The verb “to go” = ikimasu (I go, you go, he/she goes, they go, we go, etc.)
Watashi wa ima gakkou e ikimasu.
(I go to school now.)
In Japanese, the present tense of the verb automatically becomes a future tense by adding adverbs of “time”, such as ashita = tomorrow atode = later raishuu = next week
Watashi wa ashita gakkou e ikimasu.
(I will go to school tomorrow)
In order to form the past tense of polite forms of Japanese verbs, all you have to do is remove the final su of the verb and replace with shita.
Watashitachi wa kinou Yokohama e ikimashita.
(We went to Yokohama yesterday).
Negative form of ikimasu = ikimasen (I do not go, you do not go, he/she does not go, we do not go, etc. etc.)
In other words, the negative form of the verb is made simply by removing the su, and replacing with sen.
tabemasu = (I eat, you eat, he/she eats, we eat, you eat, they eat)
tabemasen = (I do not eat, you do not eat, he/she does not eat, we do not eat, you do not eat, they do not eat)
arukimasu = (I walk, you walk, he/she walks, we walk, you walk, they walk)
arukimasen = (I do not walk, you do not walk, he/she does not walk, etc. etc.)
kakimasu = (I write, you write, he/she writes, we write, you write, they write)
kakimasen = (I do not write, you do not write, he/she does not write, we do not write, etc. etc.)
That’s enough for Lesson 3.
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